History of Artificial Intelligence
Prerequisites for Artificial Intelligence:
Math: Not strictly required, but it is recommended to know at least basic intuition in each section to understand AI in dept. So let’s start our artificial intelligence tutorial post.
Here are a few concepts:
- Learn linear algebra
- Multivariate calculus
- Target Function
- Mean Squared Error and Cross-Entropy, etc.
- Python (Knowledge of Python will be an added advantage)
What is Artificial Intelligence?
- It is a creative intelligent machine that can behave, think, and make decisions like humans.
- Al is not just computer science but also psychology, philosophy, linguistics!
Key characteristics of the AI system
- Big Data: Capable of processing massive amounts of structured and unstructured data that can charge continuously.
- Reasoning: Ability to reason and to draw conclusions based on the situation ( Context-Driven ).
- Problem Solving: Capable of analyzing and solving complex problems.
- Planning: AI has the ability to set goals and make plans to achieve those goals. AI can visualize the future and make predictions.
- Natural Language Processing: Ability to read and understand human language by processing the human language into machine language.
Introduction to AI Levels
Artificial Intelligence type-1: Based on Capability
- Narrow AI ( Weak AI ):
- Describing Artificial intelligence, when the machine can perform a Singular or Limited task.
- Examples of Narrow AI: Apple’s Siri.
- Strong AI:
- Unlike Weak AI, it can perform a wide range of tasks.
- Examples of Strong AI: Self-driving cars, Speech recognition.
Artificial Intelligence type-2: Based on the functionality
1. Reactive Machines
The most basic type of AI which does not store memories or past experience for future actions, they mainly focus on current events and react to it.
- Example: Google’s AlphaGo is an example of reactive machines.
2. Limited Memory Machines
- This has the ability to store past experiences or data for a short period of time.
- Example: Elon Musk introduced Self-driving cars that automatically store the recent speed of nearby cars, the distance of other cars, the speed limit, and other information to navigate the road.
3. Theory of Mind
- Ability to understand human emotions, and can interact socially like humans.
- These AI machines do not exist in reality.
- Self-awareness AI: These machines are super intelligent and have their own consciousness, sentiments, and self-awareness.
- This is just a Hypothetical concept!
Advantages of Artificial Intelligence
- High Accuracy and Reliable: AI machines take decisions as per pre-experience or information this helps in high accuracy.
- High-Speed: AI machines are fast decision-makers and speed-oriented.
- Digital Assistant: AI machines are useful for digital assistants to users.
Example: Digital assistants like Siri, Alexa is able to answer any questions based on the user’s profile, past behavior, etc.
- Public Usage: AI can be very useful for security reasons such as facial recognition.
- AI in Robotics: Intelligent robots are built using AI across the world.
Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence
- High Cost: AI Machines can cost a lot of money to build, rebuild, or repair machines.
- Unemployment: Robots can replace humans and take off their jobs.
- Require High Knowledge: Machines may lead to destruction if given in the wrong hands.
Applications of Artificial Intelligence:
AI in Finance
Betterment: Robo-Advisor Pioneer
Industry: Fintech, Impact Investing
How it’s using AI: AI-based fintech which learns about an investor and builds a personalized profile based on his or her financial plans.
AI in Healthcare
- Pathai: Improving Diagnostic Pathology
- Industry: Health Diagnostics, Machine Learning
- Location: Boston
- How it’s using AI: PathAI helps pathologists to study and diagnose disease automatically.
Pager: Proactive Healthcare Management
Industry: Healthcare, Mobile App
How it’s using AI: AI is implemented to help patients with aches, pains, and illnesses.
Travel & Transportation:
Google: Smart Maps
Industry: Search Engine, Artificial Intelligence, IT, Video Streaming
Location: Mountain View, Calif.
How it’s using AI: Google uses AI in Google Maps that make our commutes a little easier.
Hipmunk: Virtual Travel Assistant
Industry: Mobile App, Travel
Location: San Francisco
How it’s using AI: Is an AI-powered travel assistant.
AI for Robotics:
Irobot: Smarter Home Robots
Industry: Consumer Electronics, Software, Hardware
Location: Bedford, Mass.
How it’s using AI: They use AI to build smart robotic vacuum like Roomba, iRobot.
Hanson Robotics: Building Humanoid Robots
Industry: Robotics, Artificial Intelligence
Location: Hong Kong
How it’s using AI: For building humanoid robots (Both commercial and consumer markets).
Career Opportunities in Artificial Intelligence
|Position||Computer Language Required||Skills Required|
Big Data Engineer
Machine Learning Engineer
|Basics of Math
|Solving Complex Problems.
Trends in Artificial Intelligence :
- A research firm predicts that the AI market will grow to $190 by 2025 ( source ).
- IDC anticipates 90% of new enterprise apps will use AI by 2025 (source).
- China will receive the most commercial benefit from AI by 2030, followed by North America (source).
“AI is going to change the world more than anything in the history of mankind. More than electricity.”— AI oracle and venture capitalist Dr. Kai-Fu Lee